• Determination of the spatial extent and location of the polar cusp as functions of the interplanetary magnetic field (Fuselier et al., 2002a, 2003; Frey et al., 2002)
  • Observation of prompt outflow of ionospheric ions following the arrival of a CME, indicating the existence of direct heating of the topside ionosphere (Fuselier et al., 2001; Moore et al., 2001)
  • Identification of global-scale ionospheric outflow as an immediate response to solar-wind pressure pulses (Fuselier et al., 2002b, 2003)
  • Confirmation of the theory of plasmaspheric tails (Burch et al., 2001a)
  • Discovery of several new and unpredicted features of the plasmasphere including "shoulders", "fingers", corotating "voids", and isolated flux tubes (Burch et al., 2001b; Sandel et al., 2001)
  • The use of solar wind data and the Magnetospheric Specification Model to relate the plasmasphere shoulders to south-north transitions in the interplanetary magnetic field (Goldstein et al., 2002)
  • Discovery of subauroral proton arcs and identification of the role of the IMF in their formation (Immel et al., 2002; Burch et al., 2002)
  • Determination of the energy-dependent injection and drift of energetic ions during magnetospheric substorms (Burch et al., 2001a)
  • Acquisition of the first global images of the geomagnetic storm ring current, thereby identifying the development of a symmetric ring current during the recovery phase (Burch et al., 2001a; Mitchell et al., 2001; Pollock et al., 2001)
  • Acquisition of global images of substorm dipolarization in the plasma sheet. (Brandt et al., 2002)
  • Clarification of the relationships between substorms and magnetic storms, e.g., O+ injection into ring current caused by substorms (Mitchell et al., 2003)
  • Acquisition of the first global images of the proton aurora, establishing its cause and effect with correlative measurements of proton precipitation on FAST, and determination of the dynamical relationship between electron and proton aurora during substorms (Frey et al., 2001; Mende et al., 2001)
  • The first remote measurements of plasmaspheric densities using radio sounding (Reinisch et al., 2001)
  • Identification of plasmaspheric cavities as source regions for kilometric continuum radiation (Green et al., 2002)
  • The first measurements of solar-wind neutral atoms and interstellar neutral atoms from inside the magnetosphere. (Moore et al., 2001, 2003; Collier et al., 2001)

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